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中考学科备考复习策略:英语习惯用语



  中考英语常见习惯用语:知识概要——由于英语国家的语言习惯与中国的语言习惯有许多不同之处,所以造成了许多同学在做选择或书写,或与人交谈中造成误用中国方式来对英语的问句作解答。例如一个小女孩十分好看,可爱,外国人见到时会讲: You are so beautiful 这时的答语应该是 Thank you 如果外国人发现你的英语不错,他们会讲: Your English is very good 这时中国人常常会说:不,我说的不好。这纯是一种礼貌的答语,但是不符合英语习惯。它正确的答语应是 Thank you 虽然交际英语有一些规律可讲,但更重要的是学习外国的生活习惯,了解他们的文化背景,历史渊源,这样才能真正的学好一门外语。

  正误辨析

  [误] - What can I do for you?

  - Yes, please help me

  [正] - What can I do for you?

  - I‘d like to buy a sweater

  [析] What can I do for you? 这一问语实际上用于的情景很多,要根据具体情况而定。如在商店中售货员讲这句话应译为:您想要点什么?在其他场合也可以被译为:我能为您做些什么?它的答语应是直接讲出想让对方提供的帮助。

  [误] - Which colour do you like?

  - Sorry, I don’t like

  [正] - Which colour do you like?

  - I prefer blue

  [析] 由 which 来提问的问句是要回答具体的选择,而不能泛指,泛泛的回答。如 Yes, I like it

  [误] Do you like to come with us tonight?

  [正] Would you like to come with us tonight?

  [析] Do you like … 问的是对方的习惯,如: Do you like swimming? Do you like collecting stamps? 而 would you like … 则是一次性的邀请、提议。邀请的英语表达法还有如下几种:

  Shall we go? 我们走吧!

  Let‘s go? 让我们走吧!

  How about having a cup of tea? 喝杯茶如何?

  What about a cup of coffee喝杯咖啡如何?

  Why not buy it? 为什么不买呢?

  其肯定答语一般为Certainly, Yes, O.K. All right, With pleasure


  [误] - What‘s the problem?

  - I’ve got a headache

  [正] What‘s wrong with you?

  I’ve got a headache

  [析] What‘s wrong with you? 是询问对方身体状态如何,而 What’s the problem?是问对方遇到了什么麻烦。

  [误] - Now, I‘m back Can I play?

  - Perhaps You’d better do your homework first

  [正] - Now, I‘m back Can I play?

  - I’m afraid not You‘d better do your homework first

  [析] Perhaps 是表示对一种拿不准的事态的推论,如: Am I right? Perhaps而 I’m afraid not 则表达一种不同意的态度。 be afraid 的几种用法有:

  I‘m afraid that you are right

  其后直接加宾语从句。

  - Will you come to my birthday party?

  - I’m afraid not I have to go to see my father He is in hospital

  其后+not,表示否定。

  - Sorry, I don‘t want to go there alone, I’m afraid of the dog

  其后+名词,表示对某人,某物的害怕。

  Mary is afraid of making mistakes in the exam

  其后+ of + 动名词,表示害怕做某事。

  Mary is afraid to see the teacher because she didn‘t do well in the exam

  其后+ 不定式,表示不敢去做某事。

  [误] - How soon will you be ready?

  - Two days

  [正] - How soon will you be ready?

  - In two days

  [析] 此题关键是要根据情景,身临其境,要注意的是对方问了什么,就应答什么。或答了什么就应问什么。 How soon 问的是“还有多久才能作完”,这时要用 in two days, 即在两小时之内即可以作完。如用 How long 提问,则答语可以用 two days。

  [误] - Would you mind if I have some time off?

  - I don’t mind

  - Monday and Tuesday of next week

  [正] - Would you mind if I have some time off?

  - When exactly

  - Monday and Tuesday of next week

  [析] 有的对话是复杂的,稍有不慎就有可能选错,而且英语中如选错了答案是不容易找出错来的。 I don‘t mind 是可以用来回答 Would you mind…这一提问的,但如仔细看一看则会发现我们要选用的不是陈述句而是疑问句。根据下面一句的答语来判定要用 when exactly? 什么时间,这样才能与下句中具体的时间相符合。

  [误] Suppose your name is Tom The phone rings and you pick it up The first word you say will probably be “Who are you?“

  [正] Suppose your name is Tom The phone rings and you pick it up The first word you say will probably be “Hello? This is Tom speaking?”

  [析] 在英语学习中,习惯用法实际上在某种情况,或某种意义上讲比语法更为重要。如果只从句子的角度上去分析,它们可能都是对的。比如,当你拿起电话时,如果你想知道对方是谁,可以问“Who’s that(speaking)?”但不要讲“Who are you?”如果你想先介绍一下自己可以讲“This is ×××× speaking”而不要讲“I‘m ××××”也不要讲“My name is ×××××。” 就语法而论,“Who are you?” “I’m ××××”“My name is ×××××”并不错,也是英语中可用的句子,但就打电话这一场合,就不宜用了。

  [误] - Do you think it‘s going to rain over the weekend?

  - I don’t hope so

  [正] - Do you think it‘s going to rain over the weekend?

  - I hope not

  [析] 由于初学者对实际英语口语中表达感情意愿的答语不熟悉,如在肯定答语中 I think so I hope soI believe so 是相同的,但在否定句中却常用 I don’t think so 但I don‘t believe so 和 I don’t hope so 则意为:我不信此事和我不希望此事发生。而 I believe not 和 I hope not 则为:我想可能不会发生吧!


  [误] - Is anybody there?

  - No, Bob and Tom have asked for leave

  [正] - Is everybody there?

  - No, Bob and Tom have asked for leave

  [析] 许多学生在写作和选择答语或问句时总要语法在前,而不是习惯用语在先。所以总是要拘泥疑问句中的不定代词,用 anybody。 但是Is anybody there? 在英语中为:这里有人吗?而Is everybody there?为:全都到齐了吗?所以首先要考虑的是其答语。 No, Bob and Tom have asked for leave

  [误] - Your handwriting is very good!

  - No, my handwriting is very poor

  [正] - Your handwriting is very good!

  - Thank you

  [析] 中国人遇到别人称赞,总是以谦逊为美德。但英美人则往往认为自信是美德。所以当别人夸奖你或赞美你时,就应说: Thank you 又比如中国人见面时常讲 Where are you going? 或 Have you had your breakfast yet?而英美人则认为你过多的干预别人的私生活了。而他们见面时往往问一些无关紧要的话,如: Hello! How are you going? (你过得怎样) Morning! 等。而 good morning 和 How do you do 则被认为是较正规的问候语,在日常生活中则十分少见。

  [误] When you have had dinner with an American friend and want to leave you may say: “Excuse me I‘ll go first”

  [正] When you have had dinner with an American friend and want to leave you may say: “Excuse me I have to go”

  [析] 这两句答语都是正确的,其关键不是语法,而是习惯问题。如果在这样的场合你讲 I’ll go first 朋友们会迷惑不解,而 I have to go 则表示由于外界的特殊原因而造成的你要离去,而你本人则十分不愿做此事。

  [误] - Would you like to come to dinner tonight?

  - I‘d like to, and I’m too busy

  [正] - Would you like to come to dinner tonight?

  - I‘d like to, but I’m too busy

  [析] I‘m too busy 与 I’d like to 在意义上正好相反。所以要用转折连词。这里考查了对词义合乎逻辑的表达能力。所以要强调语言环境,更要强调在语言的基础上的词语辨析。

  [误] - Where‘s Deter

  - Deter will come with us tonight but he isn’t very sure yet

  [正] - Where‘s Deter?

  - Deter may come with us tonight but he isn’t very sure yet

  [析] 由于 but 所引出的句子可以看出 Deter 的来与不来是十分不确定的,所以应用 may 来表达一个不肯定的事件。

  [误] - Hi, haven‘t seen you for ages! You look fine!

  - Great  You look well too

  [正] - Hi, haven’t seen you for ages! You look fine!

  - Thanks  You look well too

  [析] 要注意的是 Great 在口语中多表示惊叹,而 Thanks 则表示感谢对方的称赞。 所以对情景谈话要有准确的判定,要根据情景,身临其境,上下对照,周密思考,弄清场合,注意英美人的风俗习惯,注重语义上的词语辨析,并要进行大量的语言实践练习,扩大实际交际能力。


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